Effects second hand smoke pregnant-The risks of secondhand smoke | Tommy’s

No matter how careful someone thinks they are about keeping smoke away from you, you and your baby still get the harmful poisons. Opening windows and doors or smoking in another room will not make it safe. If a smoker in your household quits smoking, the benefits to you and your baby are huge, similar to when you stop yourself. Second-hand smoke can mean that your baby will be smaller and sicker. It increases the risk of your baby dying unexpectedly after birth.

A Effects second hand smoke pregnant showed that maternal secondhand smoke exposure was associated with an increased risk of birth defects, although it did not have the power to determine the risk of specific congenital abnormalities. It was my last Saturday at work when my legs and ankles started itching like crazy The itching in pregnancy was irritating but the fear was worse The itching was unbearable Placenta praevia Placental abruption Pre-eclampsia Effects second hand smoke pregnant placenta Uterine abnormality Vasa praevia Waters breaking early PPROM What issues can affect the placenta? My small apartment is adjacent to another flat where a boy smokes in his verandah. American Journal of Critical Care Medicine, ; 4 — This measures the amount of Carbon Monoxide that you have in your body. All content on this Web site, including medical opinion and any other health-related information, is for informational purposes only and should not be considered to be a specific diagnosis or treatment plan for any individual situation. Human Reproduction, ; 20 9 —5. Joad JP. Testing a tool for assessing the risk of bias for nonrandomized studies showed moderate reliability and promising validity.

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Secondhand smoking can directly affect a seocnd even before a woman becomes pregnant. Email e. Millions of children are breathing in secondhand smoke in their own homes. Hundreds are toxic and about 70 can cause cancer. If there are cigarettes at home, children are more likely to experiment with smoking—the first step in becoming addicted. Even if the babysitter smokes outside, hanv children are exposed. The American Academy Pediatrics AAP has conducted research on the effects of thirdhand smoke and found that it is also harmful. Secondhand smoke is Fun birthday gift for teenage boy complex chemical mixture of more than 4, chemicals more than 50 of them cancer-causingand it's Effects second hand smoke pregnant with a number of pregnancy complications. Why are Smoke-free Environments a Big Deal? Ages and Stages.

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  • The chemicals in second-hand smoke are dangerous to your growing baby.
  • Even if you don't smoke, breathing in someone else's smoke can be deadly too.
  • Secondhand smoke is the combination of smoke from the burning end of a cigarette and the smoke breathed out by smokers.

A woman's exposure to secondhand smoke during pregnancy may affect her child's risk of behavior problems, a new study has found. The study showed that children whose mothers were exposed to secondhand smoke for at least 30 minutes daily were more than twice as likely to have attention and aggression problems at age 5 as the children whose mothers reported no secondhand smoke exposure.

This is one of the first studies to link a mother's exposure to secondhand smoke during pregnancy to child behavior problems. The researchers asked mothers to recall how frequently they had been exposed to secondhand smoke during pregnancy , and also measured behavior problems in the children at ages 5 or 6 using a common behavior scale.

Thirty-seven percent of the mothers in the study reported exposure to secondhand smoke during pregnancy. The results showed that 25 percent of the children whose mothers were exposed to secondhand smoke showed attention and aggression problems, whereas only 16 percent of the children whose mothers were not exposed showed behavior problems.

Smoking by women is highly stigmatized in China, so the researchers did not ask the study women whether they had smoked during pregnancy, though the researchers acknowledged that it is possible that several mothers may have smoked. A previous study estimated that less than 2 percent of Chinese women smoke. More than three-quarters of the fathers in the study who stopped smoking at home while their wives were pregnant resumed smoking once the baby was born. The study didn't account for the effects of exposure to secondhand smoke after the baby was born, but other research has shown that smoking near a baby has harmful effects on the child's health , Liu said.

Previous studies have found that kids born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy may be at increased risk of behavior problems? Although the researchers accounted for other variables that could affect children's behavior problems? For instance, the researchers did not collect information on whether the children were born prematurely or at a low birth weight?

Additionally, the researchers noted that a recent Canadian study found that tobacco products from China contained about three times the amount of heavy metals linked to behavior problems? News U. HuffPost Personal Video Horoscopes. Newsletters Coupons. Follow Us. Part of HuffPost Parenting. All rights reserved. The study was published in the January issue of the journal NeuroToxicology. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

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Turn off Animations. Secondhand smoke can be especially harmful to your children's health because their lungs still are developing. Email e. Until you can quit, don't smoke inside your home and don't smoke anywhere near your children, even if you are outside. Secondhand smoke contains more than 7, chemicals.

Effects second hand smoke pregnant. Your Developing Baby and Smoke


Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Help us improve our products. Sign up to take part. A Nature Research Journal. Secondhand smoke exposure of non-smoking women during pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of adverse birth outcomes.

This systematic review aimed to examine associations between secondhand smoke exposure of nonsmoking women during pregnancy with the initiation, prevalence, and duration or breastfeeding compared to women who were breastfeeding and had not been exposed to secondhand smoke.

Women who smoked during pregnancy were excluded. We included case-control, cross-sectional, and cohort studies with a comparison control group. After screening records we included eight prospective cohort studies. The risk of bias assessment tool for non-randomized studies indicated a high risk of outcome assessment blinding. Therefore, secondhand smoke might be associated with discontinuing any breastfeeding before six months. More research is necessary to understand the association between secondhand smoke and the initiation, prevalence and duration of breastfeeding.

According to the WHO report, the tobacco smoking epidemic is one of the largest public health problems globally and the number of non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke SHS has been steadily increasing 1.

This is because nicotine diffuses into fetal blood, amniotic fluid, and breast milk and negatively affects neurological development. Therefore, the fetuses and infants of mothers who smoke are at high risk of ill health because of exposure to nicotine 3. Of additional concern is that maternal SHS exposure is also associated with adverse birth outcomes such as low birth weight 2 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , stillbirth 12 , preterm birth 8 , 11 , 13 , spontaneous abortion 12 , 13 , and birth defects Although it is widely known that breastfeeding for the first six months reduces the risk for some adverse events for the infant, the available evidence is limited for the association between SHS and the impact on breastfeeding initiation, prevalence and duration.

A study in the US reported that pregnant women who were exposed to SHS had a significantly shorter time However, there was no significant association with exclusive breastfeeding duration 2. The purpose of this systematic review to examine the associations between secondhand smoke exposure of nonsmoking women during pregnancy with initiation, prevalence, and duration. The search results were de-duplicated. Two researchers independently screened titles and abstracts.

Exclusion criteria included studies of the following: mothers who previously smoked and stopped prior to their pregnancy, pregnant women who smoked during pregnancy, and non-comparative studies. We used the risk of bias assessment tool for non-randomized studies RoBANS 15 to assess the risk of bias.

Where extracted data and the quality assessment resulted in a discrepancy, the reviewing authors discussed or consulted with all the authors D.

A meta-analysis was performed on studies with similar outcomes. We assessed the effects of secondhand smoke exposure from active smokers. Data were analyzed using Review Manager RevMan 5. Probability p values of less than 0. Moreover, exclusive breastfeeding is often measured up to six months because complementary feeding starts around same time. Therefore, we set the outcome measurement point up to six months. Our database search identified a total of records of which were duplicates and removed.

Of the records screened, were excluded during the screening because they were irrelevant to our research question. Using the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected full texts for assessment. All studies involving smoking cessation in either parent, control participants composed of women who were not exposed to SHS, and pregnant women who smoked during pregnancy, as well as non-comparative studies were then excluded. A total of studies were excluded because of different populations, exposures, outcomes, and study designs.

As a result, eight studies were included in the review for data extraction. The studies were published between and Two studies were conducted in Poland, and the other six studies were carried out in the United States, Brazil, Iran, Egypt, Taiwan, and Hong Kong 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , All studies were prospective cohort studies. The outcomes were: initiation of breastfeeding and problems with breastfeeding 22 , breastfeeding duration 17 , prevalence of breastfeeding 16 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , and breastfeeding duration and prevalence of breast feeding The outcome measurement of breastfeeding duration for four studies was six months after delivery 17 , 19 , 21 , The other measurement points were: three months in Hong Kong 18 ; one month after delivery in Egypt 16 , and after delivery in Poland The measurement point was not described in the study from the USA Four of the eight studies 16 , 17 , 21 , 23 assessed the association between SHS exposure and discontinuation of breastfeeding.

Also, in these two studies, SHS exposure was defined as exposure by any household member. The result of our meta-analysis Fig. Moreover, the results of meta-analysis Fig. The other two studies 16 , 23 also reported breastfeeding duration. However, the study in Iran 23 only showed the average breastfeeding duration by day. The study in Egypt 16 measured three outcomes of breastfeeding at one month after delivery.

Those two studies used different measurement points and assessments of the outcomes. Therefore, they were excluded from the meta-analysis and instead described narratively. Moreover, Jedrychowski et al. However, other studies did not use blood cotinine measures, therefore, we used self-reported data of SHS status in the analysis.

Two of the eight studies assessed the relation of the risk of SHS exposure and shortening of exclusive breastfeeding duration 17 , Both studies defined the SHS exposure at home and measurement points were six months after delivery.

Also, measurement outcomes were the same average duration of exclusive breastfeeding but the method of measuring outcomes was different. The study in Iran reported that the average exclusive breastfeeding period was 27 days shorter at the end of six months for those who were exposed the SHS during pregnancy compared to those who were not exposed Five studies assessed the association between SHS exposure and breastfeeding prevalence 16 , 18 , 19 , 20 , One study measured the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding 23 , two studies measured the prevalence of any breastfeeding 19 , 20 , one study measured prevalence of breastfeeding but did not define the types of breastfeeding and need for supplementation 16 , and one study measured the prevalence of partial breastfeeding for any length or exclusive breastfeeding up to three months There were two studies 19 , 23 that measured the prevalence of breastfeeding for the first six months by SHS exposure and non-SHS exposure.

Those two studies found that the prevalence of breastfeeding was lower among women who were exposed to SHS during pregnancy.

The study in Iran revealed that A study in Taiwan 19 measured the prevalence of breastfeeding for the first six months by comparing SHS exposure versus non-SHS at home and the work place. The results indicated that breastfeeding duration of the SHS exposure group was also shorter compared to the non-SHS group. Those exposed to SHS during the one to five months postpartum period at home had a significantly shorter prevalence of breastfeeding compared to those who were not exposed to SHS.

However this study did not describe the measurement point of the outcomes The study in Egypt compared the associations between SHS exposure and non-SHS exposure on: breastfeeding continuation, supplementation need, and breastfeeding discontinuation For the SHS exposure group there was a significant decrease in the prevalence of breastfeeding continuation and an increase in the prevalence of supplementation need and breastfeeding discontinuation SHS exposure vs. The study in Hong Kong 19 assessed the SHS exposure before or during the early postnatal period by seven SHS exposure situations: prior to pregnancy or not exposed, at postnatal or during pregnancy to the postnatal period, and daily or occasionally.

However, they did not describe the exact time of exposure. For occasional exposure 5. The percentage of partially breastfed for any length of time or exclusively breastfed for less than three months was: The study in Poland 22 identified the relation of SHS exposure and the occurrence of lactation. This study compared SHS exposed versus non-SHS exposed women during pregnancy and measured the occurrence of lactation by three categories: lactation occurred after delivery, low milk supply, and lactation did not occur.

To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review to assess the association between SHS and breastfeeding. Maternal SHS exposure during pregnancy was significantly associated with an increased discontinuation of any breastfeeding before six months. Also, SHS exposure during pregnancy was associated with shorter breastfeeding duration, and a lower prevalence of breastfeeding.

However, we did not synthesize the association of SHS and breastfeeding duration and initiation of breastfeeding and there was no significant association between SHS and initiation of breastfeeding.

Smoking or parenteral nicotine is already known to be associated with low prolactin concentrations Prolactin is important for metabolic homeostasis and is associated with the lactating mammary gland, by increasing milk proteins, lactose, and lipids It is important to note that one animal study reported that nicotine was one of risk factors for the inhibition of prolactin release In addition, tobacco smoke includes more than 4, chemicals that are already known to be harmful for humans SHS actually poses a higher risk than mainstream smoke because SHS is a combination of mainstream smoke, that which is exhaled by the smoker and side stream smoke, that smoke which is emitted from the cigarette between puffs.

The side stream smoke includes a higher number of chemicals than mainstream smoke Therefore, exposure to SHS includes the inhalation of the nicotine or other chemicals, which also affects the smoker. In consideration of these mechanisms and our findings, we surmise that during second hand smoke exposure nicotine or other chemicals are inhaled resulting in the inhibition of prolactin release. Exclusive breastfeeding would be a cost-effective way to protect the infant Hence, the indications that SHS can affect breastfeeding duration implies that further research is needed to inform public health strategies that could prevent adverse effects of SHS on maternal and child health.

Given the benefits of breastfeeding for infant health, an appropriate prevention anti-smoking campaign is critical. They noted that challenges to this complex problem must be addressed on multiple fronts to protect the people from SHS The government needs to promote precautionary measures to implement public health strategies and advise on the impact of SHS exposure to health Despite our systematic approach to reviewing the extant research on the effects of SHS on breastfeeding there are several limitations that should be addressed.

First, only two studies were eligible for meta-analysis. One of the reasons we assessed the quality of evidence as low was because no participants of the studies were blinded to the outcome assessment and it was impossible to have blinded that outcome assessment.